Last updated: September 29, 2020 at 6:10 p.m.

Tailored health advice for people with specific needs to prevent the spread of COVID-19.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, people may experience emotions and face situations that influence their consumption of alcohol, cannabis or other drugs. Alcohol and cannabis use is associated with some diseases that can make a person more vulnerable to COVID-19, and may influence the outcome of a COVID-19 infection.

Learn more about substance use during COVID-19 and what you can do to minimize risks to your health:

Toronto Public Health has also developed harm reduction resources for people who use drugs, including Tips for People Who Use Drugs and Harm Reduction during COVID-19.

If you need support for a substance use issue, visit our Mental Health Resources page to find community-specific resources.

  • There is limited information about breastfeeding as it relates to COVID-19. In other coronavirus infections, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), the virus has not been detected in breastmilk.
  • Breastmilk provides protection against many illnesses.
  • Breastfeeding is recommended even if you have COVID-19 as there is no evidence that the virus is transmitted in breast milk.
  • Take all self-isolation precautions and wear a face mask while breastfeeding to avoid spreading the virus to your baby.
  • If you sneeze or cough over your exposed chest/breasts, wash the area with soap and water before breastfeeding or expressing your milk.
  • If you feel too sick to breastfeed or are separated from your baby, you can hand express or pump your milk at least eight times in 24 hours, and once during the night, to maintain your breastmilk supply. The expressed breastmilk may be fed to your baby from a cup, spoon or bottle by someone who is well.
  • If expressing breast milk, wash your hands and put on a face mask before touching any pump or bottle parts. After each use, clean the pump according to manufacturer’s instructions
  • Do not use borrowed or second-hand breast pumps unless they are hospital grade rental pumps (follow hospital’s instructions). Some used or second-hand breast pumps have internal parts that are difficult to properly sterilize.
  • If a bottle is used to feed expressed breast milk, ensure that it is properly sterilized.
  • All caregivers must practice good hygiene measures, including hand washing and wearing a face mask, before touching the baby, breast pump, or feeding bottles and equipment.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.

Learn more about breastfeeding and COVID-19 and breastfeeding.

Download this information as a PDF.

  • Based on current information, infants and children do not appear to be at higher risk for getting COVID-19 than adults.
  • Symptoms and complications of COVID-19 appear to be milder among infants and children compared with adults based on limited reports to date.
  • The best way to protect your baby is to take all self-isolation precautions and avoid exposing your baby to COVID-19.
  • Before touching your baby, wash your hands with soap and water for at least 15 seconds.
  • Wear a face mask over your nose and mouth whenever you are near your baby.
  • If possible, keep your baby’s sleep surface at least six feet from your face.
  • Ask friends or family members who are not sick to help care for your baby.
  • If you are breastfeeding, always wash your hands before touching the baby and wear a face mask while breastfeeding.
  • If you have made an informed decision to feed your baby infant formula:
    • Ask someone who is well to feed the baby, if possible
    • Always wash your hands and wear a face mask while preparing formula and feeding the baby.
    • Sterilize bottles and equipment, and wash your hands before handling clean bottles and equipment.
    • Have a two to four week supply of formula.
    • If your baby is under two months of age, use liquid concentrate or ready-to-feed formula.
    • Homemade infant formula is not recommended as it is nutritionally incomplete. Learn about infant formula.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.

Learn more about caring for a baby when you have COVID-19.

Download this information as a PDF.

There is limited information available about the effect of COVID-19 on pregnant individuals and babies. However, there is information about pregnancy and other respiratory viruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), which we can learn from.

  • Respiratory infections during pregnancy are a concern as pregnant individuals are more likely to have serious symptoms and may need to be hospitalized.
  • Protect yourself by practicing physical distancing, avoid being exposed to the virus, and wear a mask or face covering in indoor public spaces and when you can’t keep physical distance. The use of non-medical masks or face coverings is required in all indoor public spaces, as per a new City of Toronto bylaw.
  • Consider downloading Health Canada’s COVID Alert app so you can be notified directly if you have been in close contact with someone who was contagious with COVID-19.
  • Pregnancy does not seem to make a COVID-19 infection worse and does not seem to cause birth defects.
  • Some pregnant individuals have gone into early labour (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) due to exposure to the virus.
  • To date, most infants born to individuals who had COVID-19 during pregnancy were born healthy and at term.
  • If you have been in contact with someone who has tested positive or has symptoms of COVID-19 or if you have symptoms of COVID-19, stay home and self-isolate and get tested.

Working while pregnant

  • Individuals who are pregnant can continue to work. Talk to your employer about the type of work you do, access to personal protective equipment (PPE) and how to protect yourself from being exposed to the virus.
  • It is important for you to wash your hands often, practice physical distancing, wear a face mask indoors and when distancing is difficult, and stay home if you are sick.

Prenatal appointments

  • Ask your health care provider which prenatal appointments can be virtual, and which require an in-person visit.
  • If you have symptoms of COVID-19, call your health care provider prior to any appointments to let them know and to find out if you should get tested.

Preparing for labour and birth

  • A lot is still being learned about COVID-19 during labour and birth.
  • Talk to your health care provider about your birth plan. Due to COVID-19, some procedures may be different than what you expect.
  • You will be screened for COVID-19 when you arrive at your place of birth. If you are sick with COVID-19 symptoms, additional precautions will be taken to protect your baby and others around you.
  • Many hospitals and birth centres only allow one support person in the birthing and post-partum areas. Your support person will be screened for COVID-19. If they have COVID-19, or may have it, they will not be able to be with you for the birth.
  • Your support person will need to stay in your room. They will not be able to leave and come back, even for just a few minutes. Another support person cannot take over if they leave.
  • For home births, talk to your midwife about how to make your environment safe.
  • You will have to wear a face mask while getting care, and your support person will have to wear a mask as well.
  • Breastfeeding is recommended even if you have COVID-19 as there is no evidence that the virus is transmitted in breast milk.
  • If giving birth during the COVID-19 pandemic worries you, talk to your health care provider.

Learn more about COVID-19 and Pregnancy.

Download this information as a PDF.

Children use play to explore their environment, grow their imagination and discover new opportunities. Playing outside is fun, exciting and important for healthy child development. Here are some strategies to reduce the risk of COVID-19 while encouraging outdoor play.

When children play outside they:

  • move more, sit less and play longer
  • build muscle strength, coordination and confidence
  • learn better, sleep better and feel better physically and emotionally
  • think creatively and problem solve
  • lean skills that help them cope with stress

Prevent the spread

  • Stay home if you or your child are feeling sick.
  • Teach children to wash their hands often, and to avoid touching their face.
  • Supervise children under the age of 6 when using hand sanitizer. Rub hands until dry.
  • Explain to children why they need to stay six feet apart from people they don’t live with.
  • Do not have playdates with other families.
  • Do not play in crowded areas.

Stay safe

  • Bring your own toys or sports equipment. Wash toys after play with hot soapy water.
  • Clean hands after touching surfaces such as park benches and playgrounds.
  • Teach children how to stay safe around potential dangers, such as streets.
  • Use bike paths and helmets when using tricycles, scooters and bicycles.

Have fun

  • Schedule in time and a place for children to play.
  • Find parks with grass, slopes and hills for children to run, crawl, roll and climb on.
  • Choose nature trails for children to explore.
  • Play with your children and have fun together!
  • See Outdoor Play Canada and ParticipACTION for more play ideas.

Download this information as a PDF.

Currently, there isn’t a vaccine for COVID-19, however vaccinating infants and toddlers is still important during COVID-19. Vaccine preventable diseases are still spreading globally. Waiting to vaccinate can leave children vulnerable to diseases. Vaccines should only be postponed if your child is sick with respiratory symptoms to prevent any possible spread of COVID-19.

Immunization is not just for kids. The?vaccines you need may depend on your age, health condition, occupation, travel habits, environment, and lifestyle. Talk to your healthcare provider about whether you need to be vaccinated during COVID19 and how to safely attend a clinic.

Before Your Visit

  • Choose only one parent or guardian to accompany your child’s appointment.
  • Do not attend a clinic if you or your child is sick. Call to reschedule an appointment.
  • Review tips to improve your child’s immunization experience.
  • Bring your child’s immunization card to the appointment or download the CANImmunize app.
  • Talk to your child about the visit so they know what to expect. Your child may feel a poke or pinch for a few seconds.
  • Have your child choose a blanket, stuffed toy or a book for distraction or comfort.

During the Visit

  • Wait in the car until they are ready for your child, if feasible.
  • Sanitize your hands when entering the building.
  • If spending time in the waiting room with others, consider wearing a face mask.
  • Keep six feet distance from others.

After Vaccination

  • After vaccination, stay at the clinic for 15 minutes to monitor for any reactions.
  • Offer praise. Positive reinforcement works for children of all ages.
  • Sanitize your hands when leaving the building.
  • At home, monitor your child for any side effects. For minor?reactions such as fever, irritability or a sore arm, use acetaminophen or ibuprofen as directed by your doctor.
  • If you notice any changes in your?child’s health, such as unusual fussing, crying or?low energy, call your doctor.

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a new (novel) coronavirus. COVID-19 is spread by respiratory droplets. Many of the COVID-19 cases are from in-person transmission, before people show symptoms. A person may also get COVID-19 from touching surfaces with respiratory droplets and then touching their eyes, nose or mouth.

The risk for spreading COVID-19 are higher with indoor gatherings, people in close contact or in a poorly ventilated area. In general, the risk for severe illness from COVID-19 increases with age. Knowing the facts about COVID-19 can help reduce the spread of infection to you and the people around you.

Mask or Face Covering

Wearing a mask or face covering helps prevent the spread of our respiratory droplets and germs to others. Masks are inexpensive, and can help save lives. They also serve as a reminder to continue with physical distancing and other prevention measures.

Prevention Measures

  • Wash your hands often. If soap and water is not available use hand sanitizer.
  • Maintain a six feet distance from people you don’t live with.
  • Wear a mask in indoor public spaces and when physical distancing is hard.
  • Cover a cough or sneeze and avoid touching your face with unwashed hands.
  • Clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces frequently.
  • Monitor your health. If you feel unwell, stay home

Knowing the Signs and Symptoms

COVID-19 symptoms may be different depending on your age. Some people may have mild or no symptoms. For older adults, some may have non-specific symptoms such as confusion, feeling disorientated, sleeping more than usual, muscle aches, dizziness, weakness, falls, chills or headaches.

Staying Connected during COVID-19

  • Calls, texts or video chats with friends are still the safest choice.
  • Save hugs only for people you live with.
  • Keep a six foot distance from people you don’t live with.
  • Outdoor gatherings are safer. Go for a walk together; play golf, tennis, or enjoy a cool drink at a patio. Wear a mask or face covering and keep six feet apart.
  • Cancel plans and stay home when you are sick.
  • Encourage friends to reach out for support if they need it.

Reducing Your Risks

  • Limit your trips to public places.
    • Continue with online banking, purchases, and curbside pickup, when possible.
    • Stock up on essential supplies such as cleaning products, toiletries or pet food.
  • Monitor yourself for symptoms of COVID-19. Stay home if you are feeling unwell.
  • Download the COVID Alert app so you can be notified directly if you were in close contact with someone with COVID-19.
  • Bring your own masks, a bag for your used mask, tissue or wipes, and hand sanitizer when going out.
  • Learn how to wear a cloth mask safely. Change your mask when it is moist or dirty.
  • Avoid crowded spaces and prolonged closed contact with others.
  • Stay active. Go out for fresh air and exercise.
  • Open windows for sunlight and good air flow.
  • Eat a variety of vegetables, fruit and whole grains. Don’t skip meals.
  • Drink more water, and reduce sugar intake.
  • Limit your consumption of alcohol and other drugs.
  • When feeling overwhelmed, reach out for help (see resources below).

Health Care and Pharmacy Visits

  • Continue with your prescribed medicines. Do not change treatment plans without talking with your health care provider.
  • Do not delay visits to your health care provider if you have health concerns.
  • Ask if they offer telephone or online services.
  • If you have symptoms of COVID-19, call for instructions before visiting.
  • Use a face mask or covering, and keep six feet from others.
  • Wait outside or in your car until you are called for your appointment.
  • Call in your prescription to pharmacy. If possible, try to have at least 30 days of prescription and non-prescription supplies.

Going Shopping

  • Monitor for symptoms of COVID-19, and stay home if you are sick.
  • Create a list to keep shopping trips short. Avoid crowds.
  • Look for stores that offer early hours for seniors.
  • Wear a face mask or covering when in public settings.
  • Keep six feet from others.
  • Clean your hands often, and avoid touching your face.
  • Once you return home, place your used mask in the laundry bin and wash your hands.

Seniors Services

Beware of Frauds and Scams

Do not purchase products with claims to protect you against COVID-19. There is no drug approved for the prevention of COVID-19. Do not give your personal information to anyone over the phone. Toronto Public Health staff will never ask for your credit card or social insurance number.

Download this information as a PDF.

Safety Tips and Resources for Seniors and their Caregivers

Download this handy COVID-19 information sheet with safety tips and resources for seniors and their caregivers.

Download the information sheet in Farsi, French, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, Spanish, Tamil, Traditional Chinese, Tagalog, and Urdu.

French Resource

A new City of Toronto bylaw requires people to wear masks or face coverings?when inside public spaces. COVID-19 can spread before someone develops symptoms. By wearing a mask or face covering, we can protect each other.

Some people who are deaf, deafened or hard of hearing cannot wear face coverings because they rely on facial movements and lip-reading to communicate. If you meet someone not wearing a face covering, be understanding. It is not always obvious when someone is deaf, deafened or hard of hearing.

Tips for communicating with people who are deaf, deafened or hard of hearing:

  • Ask the person how they prefer to communicate. Not all deaf people use sign language.
  • You can remove your mask if someone who is deaf or hard of hearing asks you to, but keep a distance of 6 feet (2 metres) or stand behind a plexiglass barrier.
  • Consider using a clear plastic face shield that extends below the chin and wraps around the sides of the face. Ensure they are cleaned and disinfected properly. And remember, they do not replace a mask for people who can still wear a mask.
  • Look at and speak directly to the person, not the ASL interpreter (if using one).
  • Do not over-articulate your words or shout.
  • Speak at a normal pace – not too fast or too slow.
  • Use speech-to-text mobile apps or writing paper.

There are limited reports of animals becoming infected with COVID-19. If you are caring for a pet during the COVID-19 pandemic you should:

  • Wash your hands thoroughly and frequently,?and practise good respiratory etiquette (e.g. don’t touch your eyes, nose and mouth with unwashed hands, and cover your cough or sneeze) when caring for your pet.
  • When outside, keep your pet two metres or six feet from other people and animals.
  • If you are sick, limit your contact with your pet, if possible.?Have someone in your household who is not sick look after your pet.
  • If your pet gets sick, contact your veterinarian.

Learn about caring for your pet during COVID-19. Read also Public Health Ontario’s advice for caring for your pet if you have COVID-19 or you or your pet have been exposed to COVID-19.

Toronto Animal Services (TAS) is offering advice and assistance to pet owners who are experiencing hardship and struggling to care and provide necessities for their pets due to COVID-19.

French Resource:

Read Toronto Public Health’s tips for preparing for school during COVID-19.

Tips for parents

The COVID-19 pandemic may be challenging to parents who are not living together but are co-parenting their children. Below are some tips to help you work together during this stressful time.

Stick to the court-ordered parenting schedules as much as possible

  • Regular parenting time and custody schedules should be kept, unless someone is self-isolating or under quarantine.
  • Family court has been postponed during the pandemic, and only urgent matters will be heard at this time.
  • If you think the other parent is not taking necessary health precautions to prevent the spread of COVID-19, an urgent motion can be filed. Instructions on how to file an urgent motion can be found on the Ontario Superior Court of Justice website.
  • Do not take advantage of this health crisis to prevent your child from having contact with the other parent. Breaches of custody orders will be noted once the courts are back in session.

Maintain structure and routines

  • Stick to regular family schedules and routines – schedule time for exercise, school work, family time, chores and hobbies. Keep regular bedtimes and meal times.

Keep conflict away from children

  • Stay child-focused and work together as a united team to help your child feel safe and reduce their stress and anxiety. Focus on what is best for your child.

Reduce the risk of spreading COVID-19

  • To model good prevention behaviour, ensure that both homes are taking measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 such as:
    • regular hand washing
    • cleaning and sanitizing frequently touched objects
    • staying home as much as possible
    • practising physical distancing
    • wearing a face mask or covering in indoor public spaces as per a new City of Toronto bylaw.
  • Consider downloading the COVID Alert app so you can be notified directly if you have been in close contact with someone who was contagious with COVID-19.
  • When carrying out parenting exchanges, do it where you can keep a safe physical distancing of two metres (or six feet) from the other parent, and wash your child’s toys, clothing and personal belongings each time they return from their other parent.
  • If you have symptoms or have been exposed or tested positive to COVID-19, you will need to self-isolate for 14 days starting from the day the symptoms started. If your child was not with you when you started having symptoms you should not see them until after the 14 day self-isolation period is over, and you are feeling better and no longer have a fever. Make sure to let the other parent know as soon as possible.
  • If your child was with you when you developed symptoms or were exposed to COVID-19, they must stay with you and also self-isolate for 14 days.
  • Parenting exchanges should not take place when a parent or child is self-isolating, and should only resume once the isolation period is over, and the parent or child who was in self-isolation is feeling better, and no longer has a fever.
  • If you are caring for someone with COVID19 or are pregnant or caring for a new baby at home and have COVID19, ensure that you are taking measures to prevent spreading the virus.

More information about co-parenting during COVID-19

For more legal information or support

Download this information as a PDF.

Also read the Public Health Agency of Canada’s fact sheet for vulnerable populations.

For information in French about COVID-19, please visit the Government of Ontario’s website and Public Health Ontario portal.